When you submit a checklist to eButterfly, you make your observations available to the global community of citizen scientists, researchers, educators, conservationists, and butterfly enthusiasts. The publications listed below highlight the various ways in which all these contributions are being put to use.

We would like this list of publications to be as inclusive as possible. If you know of other publications not listed which used eButterfly data, please let us know.

  • Wilson J. Keaton, Casajus Nicolas, Hutchinson Rebecca A., McFarland Kent P., Kerr Jeremy T., Berteaux Dominique, Larrivée Maxim, Prudic Kathleen L. (2021). Climate Change and Local Host Availability Drive the Northern Range Boundary in the Rapid Expansion of a Specialist Insect Herbivore, Papilio cresphontes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9:85.
  • Bates, A. E., Primack, R. B., Duarte, C. M., & PAN-Environment Working Group. (2021). Global COVID-19 lockdown highlights humans as both threats and custodians of the environment. Biological Conservation, 109175.
  • Skreta, M., Luccioni, A., & Rolnick, D. (2020). Spatiotemporal Features Improve Fine-Grained Butterfly Image Classification. Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning workshop at NeurIPS 2020.
  • Tremblay, P., MacMillan, H. A., & Kharouba, H. M. (2020). Autumn larval cold tolerance does not predict the northern range limit of a widespread butterfly species. bioRxiv.
  • Weiser, E. L., Diffendorfer, J. E., Lopez-Hoffman, L., Semmens, D., & Thogmartin, W. E. (2020). Challenges for leveraging citizen science to support statistically robust monitoring programs. Biological Conservation, 242, 108411.
  • Crewe, Tara L., Mitchell, Greg W., Larrivée, Maxim. (2019). Size of the Canadian Breeding Population of Monarch Butterflies Is Driven by Factors Acting During Spring Migration and Recolonization. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7: 308.
  • Weiser, E. L., Diffendorfer, J. E., Grundel, R., López‐Hoffman, L., Pecoraro, S., Semmens, D., & Thogmartin, W. E. (2019). Balancing sampling intensity against spatial coverage for a community science monitoring programme. Journal of Applied Ecology.
  • Wilson, J. Keaton, Nicolas Casajus, Rebecca A. Hutchinson, Kent P. McFarland, Jeremy T. Kerr, Dominique Berteaux, Maxim Larrivée, Kathleen L. Prudic (2019) Climate change and local host availability drive the northern range boundary in the rapid northward expansion of the eastern giant swallowtail butterfly
    bioRxiv 868125; doi:
  • Soroye, P., Ahmed, N., Kerr, J.T. (2018). Opportunistic citizen science data transform understanding of species distributions, phenology, and diversity gradients for global change research. Global Change Biology 24, 5281–5291.
  • Prudic, K. L., Oliver, J. C., Brown, B. V., & Long, E. C. (2018). Comparisons of citizen science data-gathering approaches to evaluate urban butterfly diversity. Insects9(4), 186.
  • Prudic, K. L., McFarland, K. P., Oliver, J. C., Hutchinson, R. A., Long, E. C., Kerr, J. T., & Larrivée, M. (2017). eButterfly: leveraging massive online citizen science for butterfly conservation. Insects8(2), 53.
  • Ries, L., & Oberhauser, K. (2015). A citizen army for science: quantifying the contributions of citizen scientists to our understanding of monarch butterfly biology. BioScience65(4), 419-430.